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Friday, 28 December 2012

Empowerment Evaluation Essay: McDavid, Hawthorn, Lipsey

Empowerment Evaluation Essay: McDavid, Hawthorn, Lipsey
1.      Empowerment evaluation

According to McDavid and Hawthorn (2006), empowerment evaluation is the process through which an external program evaluator helps program managers and staff to evaluate their own program.   This is contrasted with the traditional methods of evaluation where the external evaluator would evaluate the programs independently and give the feedback later. Lipsey (2000)

Empowerment evaluation has a more positive impact on employee learning and performance than the traditional form of evaluation because it helps the managers and the staff feel in charge of the evaluation. This is because the external evaluator gives them the required quality controls and advice, which they learn from as they assess their progress. In contrast, traditional evaluators may just give a report on what the staff has done well and what they may have done wrong. For instance, while working as a teacher, external assessors have evaluated my teaching methods, classroom management and overall performance. Some of the evaluators just gave me reports while some of them assisted me evaluate my own performance. In the long run, I have benefitted more from those who coached me to evaluate my own progress than from those who just gave a report.

2.      Steps in an evaluation study

For my final project, I intend to use a corporate organization, Amazon Inc. My choice is informed by the relative success Amazon has experienced, placing it among the largest and most successful companies. Here are the mission and vision statements:

Mission: To continue offering high quality products using the best technology

Vision: To be the most customer centric company on earth

One of the areas of evaluation studies among Amazon employees would be to evaluate the relationships among them. This would include the effectiveness of communication and its effect their performance of duties

Another problem I would investigate would be on employees’ ability to control their emotions in the work place. The study would evaluate how the employees’ emotions affect their performance and whether there are changes that may be necessary.


Lipsey, M. W. (2000). Method and rationality are not social diseases. The American Journal of Evaluation, 21 (2), 221-223.

McDavid, J.C., & Hawthorn, L.L. (2006). Program evaluation & performance measurement: An introduction to practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Accounting Code of Professional Conduct: References..APA Citation

Accounting Code of Professional Conduct: References..APA Citation

AICPA Code of Professional Conduct, Section 56 - Article V: Due   Care. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from: Pages/et_56.aspx

Clikeman, P. M. 2003. Educating for the public trust. CPA Journal, 73(8), 80.

Cohen, R., Pant, L.W. (1991). “Beyond bean counting: Establishing high ethical standards in the public accounting profession”. Journal of Business Ethics, 10,45-56.

Collins, A., Schulz, N. (1995). “A critical examination of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct”. Journal of Business Ethics, 14, 31-41.

Fatt, J. (1995). Ethics and the Accountant. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(12), 997-1004.

Koumbiadis, N. J., & Okpara, O. 2008. Ethics and accounting profession: An exploratory study of accounting students in post secondary institutions. International Review of Business Research Papers. 4(5), (pp.147-156). October-November 2008

Professional judgment, Benevolence and the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct

Benevolence and the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct

Accepting to perform a given responsibility to the public marks a profession according to AICPA Code of Professional Conduct. AICPA has tried to enhance benevolence by playing a bigger role in the accounting profession.  Setting the auditing standards has increased the users of financial statements. It ensures clients receive quality services from the accounting professional. The code states that CPAs are to act with a mission of serving public interest, demonstrating commitment and honoring public trust. An accounting professional therefore should do well to the public with a no personal profit-making motive. Professionalism should be basic in their work. They should act to serve the public interest instead of their personal interest (AICPA section53).

Given the provision of the AICPA code of ethics, compliance to it depends on the members’ willingness to do it. The clients’ belief is that the CPAs comply with the code while offering services to them. It is therefore important for an accountant to have a will of protecting the interest of the client. Through meeting the clients’ needs is an indication of loyalty. AICPA code of ethics requires the auditor to maintain confidentiality. The client will feel protected when the accountant keeps his information confidential. The accountants on the other hand should not use the information for self or financial interests.

AICPA has sought to advance the investor education through training as well as by providing advanced methods of financial reporting. It has promoted strong corporate governance and internal control system that ensures fair information is presented to the public companies (Clikeman, 2003).

Professional judgment and AICPA code of ethics

Professional judgment is the process through which accounting professionals resolve ethics dilemmas using professional norms and standards to make ethical accounting decisions. Professional interest prevails over personal interest. The code of accounting ethics provides rules and guidance to members in which to base their operation. The rules and guidance reflect modern needs and issues of the members in the profession. Members who adhere to the code are able to make ethical decision.  American Institute of Public Accountants provides professions’ authority relative to making ethical decisions (Fatt 1995).

Ethical decision making in an individual relates to his or her ethics system, ethics application, moral reasoning perspective and the level of moral reasoning. Effective professional judgment therefore depends on these characteristics in the resolution of accounting dilemma. AICPA code of professional conduct forms the base of accounting professional judgment, which is opposed to the personal judgment. Personal judgment is based on the personal ethics. The codes establish professional norms and standards that are important in establishing public trust in the service.

Integrity, Ability and the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct

Ability and the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct

Professional accountants’ competence is an indication of accounting profession’s credibility. Competence helps determine the level in which the public can trust the accountants in offering services. (AICPA, 2004, section 56) requires the accountants to have acquired technical and ethical professional knowledge and to learn on the job continually in order to maintain and improve their competence. According to rule, 201 CPAs should undertake tasks they can complete with professional competence. They should continuously strive to add value in their services. Their concern should be on the interest of the client.

According to item 02, continuous education and experience is the base of competence in accounting profession. Besides being a certified public accounts, one needs to enrich his or her competence through further education and profession al improvement. Professional ability enables a CPAs to maintain a level of understanding while using facilities to render services to the client. A CPA is able to evaluate the adequacy of his knowledge and experience to handle a given task. Item 04 of the code requires members to discharge responsibilities to the client with diligence.  Their work should be thorough in relation to the standards.  The AICPA code of conduct therefore requires the professionals to take due care through planning and supervising of their work.

 Integrity and the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct

 Integrity is a virtue of character that enhances professional recognition. Integrity acts as a benchmark to which the public can test the reliability of the accountant’s decisions. Clients use CPAs’ integrity to judge the quality of services they offer. Members of the profession should therefore perform their work demonstrating a high level of integrity. They should observe the code of professional ethics in deciding the type and the scope of the work to do (AICPA, 2004, section54).  Members in execution of their duty should be objective and independent. They should not have conflicting interests but should strictly observe the code of professional ethics.

Accounting principles and standards should remain relevant to members at all times in duty.  To maintain integrity in their work, CPAs should practice their work with quality internal control structure to ensure the work is supervised. They should also exercise individual judgment in order to find whether the activity is in relation to their role. They should keep judgment private without misrepresentation (Cohen& Pant, 1991). Behavior contrary to the accounting principles and standards undermine integrity and create distrust (Collins, Schulz, 1995).

Sample Personal Statement-Master Of Arts In Psychology Degree At University

Sample Personal Statement-Master Of Arts In Psychology Degree At  University

[My address]

[University Address]

LIU Post Graduate Admissions Processing Center
P.O. Box 805
Randolph, MA 02368-0805


I submit my application to the University for admission to pursue graduate studies in School Psychology. I am highly energetic and have a strong self-will and a powerful personal drive, which helps me succeed in my endeavors. I am as well a graduate of Saint Francis College, New York. I pursued a Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in Psychology.

I am particularly interested in Long Island University because of its positive reputation in terms of academic quality and the vast nature of its resources. I have interacted with friends who have high regard to the University in these two areas. As such, I would want to be part of this great university by acquiring a graduate degree through it and there after as an alumnus.

My education background is a story of dedication and hard work; especially given that most of the time, I had to either work while studying. The necessity of such an arrangement is as a result of on my background and my weak financial status. I however pride in all this as a badge of honor because it is a proof of my dedication to personal progress in my career. In relation to this, I have developed the following as my professional objectives:

·         To develop personal and professional capacity to champion the course of school children.
·         To remain relevant in the society by continuously sharpening my skills and by offering services to those who may need them.

·         To, at one point, become a distinguished authority in my field of choice.

As mentioned, I graduated from Saint Francis College in June this year. My major course was Psychology. Part of the coursework burden covered during the studies includes Psychology of Learning, Experimental Psychology 1 and 2, Psychobiology, Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Behavior Modification, Tests & Measurements, Foundations of Education, and Developmental Psychology. These course units have given me an adequate grounding in the field of psychology, on which I can build further knowledge. I have also undertaken a course project in the area of Experimental psychology, covering Selective ‘Attention in Gender Differences.’ some of the tasks under this research project included developing a questionnaire, manipulating time and advertisements, and examining a pool of 60 males and females in relation to the manipulated adverts. I later analyzed the results using current statistical methods.

My work experience is varied, ranging from offering of unpaid voluntary service to paid service in social and private institutions. I have desired to mention the variety of my experience in a chronological manner.

To begin with, I worked as a volunteer teacher at Saint Columba Church, dealing with special needs children in the community. This has been a memorable service spanning from 2009 to 2011. Though I briefly stopped offering my services to them due to my tight schedule as I came to the end of my Bachelor’s degree, I intend to continue with the same in future.

Between 2008 and 2009, I worked as an intern in Brooklyn Bureau of Community Service. In this position, I evaluated consumers for a work ready program while at the same time administering vocational and personality exams for consumers. My work involved helping consumers in their well-being and motivating them to become more efficient. I would assist some of the customers to set long-term goals, especially those who suffered from low to severe learning disabilities. This assistance not only helped them, but also helped me shape my own vision and set personal goals.

At the same time, between 2008 and 2010, I worked at Bergen Beach Youth Organization as a counselor. This is the one place I consolidated my desire to pursue a career in Psychology, with a bias for young people, especially those in school. Some of my responsibilities included designing a Junior Achievement curriculum as well as one for the arts. I would also assist students in a homework helper program and encourage them in personal development and rising of their self-esteem. As such, I believe the children have become better individual, confident in their capacity and more determined to grow.

Further, I have extensive experience working in schools. Some of the places I have worked in include Children’s All Day School; where I was a Teacher’s Aide between December 2009 and March 2010. I worked in Gillen Brewer School; where I was a paraprofessional between September 2010 and January 2011, Beach Brook Nursery; working as a Teachers Aide between January and August 2011.  Finally, I have been employed as an Assistant Teacher in Warbasse Nursery school since November last year. These schools have given me an opportunity to offer service to, and gain experience in dealing with school children.

In conclusion, as I submit this request and commitment to the university, I acknowledge the fact that largely, the work environment in which I have been has shaped my career more than any other experience in my childhood.  As a child I was brought up in a stable (though at one time financially challenged) Christian home. None of my sibling or close relatives have special needs, yet I have continually, through the places I worked, been socialized into serving special needs children in school.

Critiquing Use of Theory in Research Articles

Critiquing Use of Theory in Research Articles

Article read: On Doctoral Student Development: Exploring Faculty Mentoring in the Shaping of African American Doctoral Student Success

Author: Pamela Felder
Columbia University, New York, USA
I have identified Felder’s research article as qualitative.

First, Creswell (1998) states that qualitative research is used to explore a social problem. Felder’s article perfectly aligns itself to this, because it looks into a social problem, namely completion of doctoral degrees by African American students. The research concerns itself with problems or obstacles students find in their search for doctoral degrees. It also looks at the prevailing relationships between the African American Scholars and the college faculties.

Another injunction mentioned by Creswell is that qualitative research creates holistic pictures of the situation on consideration. This one can as well see this in Felder’s research. All through the research report, Felder communicates to the reader about the circumstances surrounding the African American Scholar. The study looks at various sample cases and presents them clearly.

One assumption taken by Felder in this research is the use of distinct methodological traditions. Felder’s research uses the case study method. She has been careful to state this, define the methodology and support its use in the study. The usage of such a methodological tradition creates a complex report, having to state for instance the sampling method, data analysis method, as well as the methods used to optimize research quality. 


Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five designs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Felder, P. (2010). On doctoral student development: Exploring faculty mentoring in the shaping of African American doctoral student success. The Qualitative Report, 15(2), 455-474. Retrieved from

Robert Russell (2011). How to Critique a Theoretical Framework Retrieved from

Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory - Nursing Practice

Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory - Nursing Practice

Imogene King is the theorist who developed goal attainment theory of nursing. According to the theory, the patient and the nurse work together to set goals and work toward achieving these goals. King’s theory explains the basis in which nurses should act. The theory discusses the attainment of goals in an open system framework, with nursing as the major system in the larger health system and emphasis in nursing on the interpersonal processes. According to the theory, man is a reactive being aware of his environment. His responds to on what he perceives, expects and needs from the environment (King (1981), George, (2002).

Health is a dynamic process involving a patient’s life experience. The experience requires the patient to adjust to the internal and external environment stressors using the available resources (King, 1981).  A person with HIV/AIDS experiences many challenges from internal and external environments. The patient is a social being with three fundamental needs: need for health information, need for care in preventing illnesses and need for care when not in a position to help in his or her daily chores.

 The conceptual framework includes three interactive systems, which are personal system, interpersonal system and social system. Perception of body image, self, time and space influence behavior of people with HIV/AIDS. It is perception that determines how the patient is going to respond to external environment. The interpersonal system refers to the way individuals interact with each other. The concepts in the interpersonal system are interaction, communication, transaction, role and stress. Social systems refer to groups of individuals with a shared values, beliefs and goals. A social system provides grounds for interaction and relationships development. A nurse is part of the patient environment. (King, 1981)

The society has stigmatized people with HIV/AIDS by classifying the disease as a disgraceful one.  To change this, a nurse should employ a goal-oriented strategy in nursing such patients. While the patient offers self-knowledge and perception, the nurse should offer special skills and knowledge. It is the goal of the nurse to help the patient cope with the disease and the feeling of separation. A nurse should interpret the information received in the nursing process to plan and provide nursing care. The attempt to restore the self-esteem of a patient is a goal shared by both the nurse and the patient.

It is important that the nurse involve the patient in decision-making. The nurse should deal with the nursing care outcomes. The perception of the nurse and the patient will influence the interaction. Nursing process motivates the patient and the nurse in exchanging their views through sharing information (Williams, 2001). The nurse should persuade the family members to contemplate within their value system the consequences of the action they intend to take. Secondly, the nurse should assist the family in making decisions based on the information. Lastly, provide guidelines into the situations that can change and that cannot change.

In conclusion, King’s Goal Attainment Theory discusses man as a reactive being, making him respond to the environment. Communicating to the patient on what is happening and what is to happen lessens the anxiety that causes stress. The information will give the patient control in the personal, interpersonal and social system. Interpersonal communication is important as a sign of care no matter the situation of the patient.


Fawcett, J. (2000). Analysis and evaluation of contemporary nursing knowledge: Nursing models and theories. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

George, J.B. (2002). Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.

King, I.M. (1971). Toward a theory for nursing: General concepts of human behavior. New York: Wiley.

King, I.M. (1981). A theory for nursing: Systems, concepts, process. New York: Wiley.

Williams, L.A. (2001). Imogene King’s Interacting Systems Theory: Application in Emergency and Rural Nursing. Online Journal of Nursing and Health Care, 2(1), 25–30.

Multicultural Education Essay

In what ways does multicultural education exist in your school?

To understand different ways in which multicultural education exist in Hawthorn School of Dual language, it will be important to define multicultural education. Multicultural education is the process of promoting a deep understanding and embracing of differences in culture, gender, race, ethnicity and religion in the society Garcia et al (1994). It ensures that minority children get equal education opportunities as others and probes out issues that may be paralyzing the process of learning. It is important that classroom teachers promote awareness on the connection between different cultural groups.

First, my school consists of students from diverse populations. These populations are White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, America Indian and other races. In the school setting, there are teachers who can listen and understand the language of each learner. By enhancing this, the institution aims at bringing harmony in the world. The school also helps students develop social, cultural, gender and racial identities. Students are able to learn and appreciate the diversity of life. The school also admits 45.5% of its students from low-income families. The school further extends its services to students with special education needs (7.9%) through special education services.

The school also offers transitional bilingual program to Limited English Proficient students. The LEP students constitute about 41.8% of the total school population. These students pass through native languages classes for about three years to help them in content areas such as Mathematics, Social Studies and Science as they learn English through the ESL program. Students’ native language develops their literacy skills and academic knowledge before they proceed to English only classrooms.

How do your school's leaders support learning styles?

School leadership is core to the success of every activity that happens in the school environment Christopher Day, (2011). Strong school leadership promotes effective teaching and learning activities. Teachers and students are motivated. Leaders in my school use different styles and strategies to provide what it takes for effective learning. They search for good practices from outside and motivate teachers to adapt to their appropriate context (Ofsted, 2003). Leaders also make systematic changes through which the school provides learning. They evaluate different learning styles appropriate in a particular level and further give guidance to teachers on how to incorporate them.

School leaders support this learning style by employing staff from a diversity of backgrounds, who can understand and implement the bilingual program. For the program to run effectively there’s need for teachers who will teach content areas in the native language of each learner. The leaders ensure that these teachers are available. The school also provides the staff with development programs that expand their knowledge and capacity to serve students from this variety of populations. They motivate staff by incorporating cultural and racial content in their teaching through provision of necessary resources. In addition, school leaders encourage teachers to display the content in a way that distinguishes the languages. They also encourage the learners to use different notebooks for each language. Leaders give new direction on different education programs that address various challenges faced by students in their learning. Through this, students are able to participate actively and benefit from classroom instruction and other activities in the program. Finally, we can say that leaders formulate and implement school policy that accommodates the learning styles. The policy gives guidelines to teachers towards offering students with equitable education.

Usefulness of culturally relevant and culturally responsive pedagogy in the school

One of the usefulness of this type of pedagogy is that it enables people to maintain their culture. This is because the school recognizes each learner’s culture and language. The learner’s language acts as a foundation to acquiring academic knowledge. This is useful because the goal of education is not to destroy the diversity of people’s culture and language while socializing them into a universal one. 

Another importance of using culturally responsive pedagogy is the hope that when students learn their own as well as other people’s culture, they will develop respect and appreciation them. This knowledge and appreciation goes a long way in creating a harmonized society. As such, the students will understand their position in the community while maintaining their identity.

According to Geneva Gay (2003), Multicultural education is important to students of color, and to the preparation of youths in a pluralistic country. It is important for students to understand how these issues affect the country. 

Gay also states that many students who come from diverse backgrounds find the school to be unexciting and unwelcoming. They feel alienated that much of the content taught does not reflect who they are. Have a culturally responsive program would ensure that this is reversed. Each of the student’s culture becomes important and part of the learning process. This ensures that no learner is alienated from the process. By far, using such a method to encourage learners from diverse cultures ensures that education is all-inclusive.


Christopher Day, (2011). Successful School Leadership: Linking With Learning and Achievement. United Kingdom: McGraw-Hill International.

Fred Schultz, (2001). Multicultural Education. Dushkin: McGraw

Garcia,J.,Margalef-Boada,S.,&Pugh,S. (1994).Multicultural trade books in the Social Studies       classroom.

Youth Justice: Aboriginal Youth Insecurity and Gang Involvement

Youth Justice: Aboriginal Youth Insecurity and Gang Involvement

One of the issues that affect the aboriginal youth and force them into street life is insecurity. Some of the youth in the video cite this as the reason why they found themselves in the streets.  For instance, Julie says that she did not feel safe.  Her mother caused some of this feeling of insecurity. It therefore appears that instability in the family could be a cause of youths being in the streets.

Another reason we note in the video could be financial uncertainty. As seen through Colton, another young man who speaks in the video, work to him was “up and down” he could not find money to sustain himself in a home. This further led to his involvement in drugs, deepening his financial woes. It is therefore apparent that many aboriginal youths who are not in a stable job or who do not have a consistent source of livelihood may involve themselves in street life and drug abuse.

Finally, we can consider the gap between the rich and the poor as a factor that makes the youth get into street life. It has been noted that the gap between the rich and the poor in Canada is quite wide. Majority of the poor are the aboriginals and they could compare themselves with the rich natives. This comparison may lead to desperation among them and some of them may get into the streets.

 a)       One of the issues facing the Aboriginals in Regina includes a gang mentality. This seems to originate in the 1990 Oka land dispute, which pulled the aboriginals into groupings, which have become gangs and are now involved in crime.

Another problem facing the Aboriginals is creating a sense of belonging among them. One former member of a gang, named Kowalski says he joined the gang to be part of a brotherhood. Being part of brotherhood was to help him feel a sense of belonging in relation to his age mates. It is through this that he learnt of the negative consequences of the group and later decided to change to the right way.

A feeling of insecurity led to increase in gang involvement. Kowalski in his life felt that he could be secure in the gang. According to him, being part of the gang would guarantee him protection from harassment from members of the gang.

The issues facing aboriginal youths may be different from the issues facing non-aboriginal youths. For example, aboriginal youths are disadvantaged economically, socially and politically. The difference came in because of the colonization, which caused internalized oppression among the aboriginals.

b)       According to Corey Mathews, who is deeply involved in fighting gang involvement, youths must be involved in other activities that would help them see themselves successful like “modern day warriors” Such activities could include music and sports.


Minaker, Joanne & Bryan Hogeveen (2008). Youth, Crime, and Society: Issues of Power and Justice. Tolonto: Pearson.

The ERICA Model- Effective Reading in the Content Areas

The ERICA model  provides guidance in comprehending informational text.

It is an acronym for Effective Reading in the Content Areas. It consists of 4 stages which are usually worked through in sequence, but with some texts it is possible to complete stages 2 and 3 together.


1. PREPARING (Before Reading)

2. THINKING THROUGH (During Reading)                                                     

3. EXTRACTING& ORGANISING (During / After Reading)

 4. TRANSLATING (After Reading)

The Preparing stage involves the areas of

·         Ideas
·         Materials and
·         Vocabulary.

In this stage the reader needs to learn how to:

·         recognise the organisation of a text;
·         use this to predict content
·         locate main ideas.

 To do this readers ( and initially, teachers) need to examine:

·         Title ( does it identify content? Eg Whose Bones?)
·         Author – qualifications? bias?
·         Publication date – is it current information?
·         Publisher – bias? Reputable/
·         Chapter headings – identifiable?
·         Paragraph headings- locate?
·         Pictures, maps, diagrams – relevant? labelled? essential? ease of reading?
·         Glossary – is it needed?
·         List of contents.
·         Index

 Before introducing a text to children it is a teacher’s task to assess these elements and determine whether the text is suitable and if any area will need special support eg lack of a glossary may mean the need to focus on vocabulary before reading the text.

With information texts the organisation and structure of the text is a major learning point. Children tend to be “swamped” by fictional genre of recount and narrative in their “learning to read” stages and grow accustomed to texts which move sequentially from beginning to end and are read in this way.